(en) The Arevaci or Aravaci (Arevakos, Arvatkos, or Areukas) were a Celtic people who settled in the central Meseta of northern Hispania and dominated most of Celtiberia from the 4th to late 2nd centuries BC. The Vaccaei were their allies. The Greeks and Romans regarded the Arevaci as the most militaristic people of the eastern Meseta. The Arevaci embarked early on an expansionist policy by taking part in the Celtici migrations of the 5th century BC to settle in the Iberian southwest. In the late 4th and early 3rd centuries BC, the Arevaci shifted the direction of their expansion to the east, towards the upper Duero and south into the central Iberian mountains. Here, they displaced the earlier inhabitants, the Pellendones people, conquering the towns of Savia and Numantia and submitted the Uraci, thus gaining control over the strategic towns of Aregrada, Cortona, Segontia, and Arcobriga. In around the mid-3rd century BC, the Arevaci founded with their neighbours the Lusones, Belli, and Titii, a tribal federation designated the Celtiberian confederacy, with Numantia as its capital. During the Second Punic War, the confederacy kept itself neutral, though Celtiberian mercenaries are mentioned fighting for both sides on a number of occasions. The first Roman incursion into the Celtiberian heartland occurred around 195 BC under Consul Cato the Elder, who attacked unsuccessfully the towns of Seguntia Celtiberorum and Numantia.The Arevaci and the Belli revolted against Roman rule in the Celtiberian War. With the fall of Numantia in 134-133 BC, the Romans forcibly disbanded the Celtiberian confederacy and allowed the Pellendones and Uraci to regain their independence from the Arevaci, who were now technically submitted and absorbed into Hispania Citerior province. Nevertheless, the remaining Arevacian cities managed to keep much of their military capabilities intact, and led by Clunia and Termantia they helped defending Celtiberia from invasion attempts by both the Lusitani in 114 BC and the Cimbri, who poured from the Pyrenees around 104-103 BC. Emboldened by these successes – and resented by the lack of Roman recognition for their efforts – the Arevaci began secretly hatching plots against Roman rule by stirring up their equally disgruntled Celtiberian neighbours into the 99-81 BC uprisings, also known as the Third Celtiberian War. However, not only were the Arevacians ruthlessly repressedd by Proconsul Titus Didius in 92 BC, but also had to endure the destruction of their new capital, Termantia.
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